Home' Greymouth Star : August 8th 2015 Contents Greymouth Star
4 - Saturday, August 8, 2015
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uLetters to the editor
1588 - The English fleet batters and scatters
the Spanish Armada off France, in the first
major naval gun battle in history.
1916 - Australian troops begin attacks on
Moquet Farm in France.
1940 - Germany begins heavy bombing of
Britain in World War Two.
1963 - Britain’s ‘Great Train
Robbery’ takes place as thieves make
off with £2.6m in bank notes.
1965 - City of Singapore withdraws
from Federation of Malaysia and
becomes independent state.
1974 - US president Richard Nixon
announces on television that he is resigning for
his part in the Watergate scandal.
1990 - Iraq formally annexes Kuwait and
British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
orders British air and naval forces to the Gulf at
Saudi Arabian king Fahd ’s request.
2002 - Australia’s High Court rules that an
Aboriginal tribe does not have rights over
resources underneath land to which it held
native title but which was leased to mining
2004 - The legendary oil field firefighter Red
Adair, a fearless Texan who put out well fires
around the globe, dies aged 89.
uWest Coast yesteryear
uToday in history
Emiliano Zapata, Mexican revolutionary
(1879-1919); Dustin Hoffman,
US actor (1937-); The Edge (Dave
Howell Evans), Irish guitarist of
U2 (1961-); Roger Federer, Swiss
tennis player (1981-); Toby Allen,
Australian singer (1973-); Vanessa
Amorosi, Australian singer (1981-);
Princess Beatrice Elizabeth Mary
“ Man adjusts to what he should not; he is
unable to adjust to what he should.”
— Jean Toomer, African-American
“ Little children, let us love, not in word or
speech, but in truth and action.”
— (1 John 3:18).
Greymouth’s Q ueen
Carnival is bound
for success. This is
the opinion of all
organisers behind the three carnival groups.
Success will not come easily, however. It will
come after six weeks of strenuous work by a
group of dedicated people.
Understandably, organisers are anxious to
keep many of their fundraising ideas secret,
but some ideas were revealed to an Evening
Star reporter. Tonight a cocktail party will be
held for the Arts Q ueen. A picture afternoon is
scheduled for the school holidays.
Organisers behind the Sports Queen were
quick to recognise the monetary gain possible
at the recent North v South league match and
held a blanket collection. They followed up by
raffling a football autographed by the touring
Springbok party. The business organisers are
running a weekly shop and like the other two
groups, have a variety of raffles on sale. A
hootenanny towards the end of the month will
be one of the major fundraisers by this group.
He’s 21, 5ft 4in tall, just short of 10st
in weight, and he nearly became a jockey.
Pint-sized Barry Johnson, Porky to his
friends, would have represented a great loss
to West Coast Rugby if he had taken on
an apprenticeship riding a beast instead of
becoming a butcher and car ving them up.
Last week the halfback won the deser ved
honour of playing for the combined West
Coast-Buller team against the Springboks.
Johnson drove his for wards to unthinkable
heights in the face of the giant Springboks. He
never flinched and his passing was as clean and
as fast as the slice of his cleaver.
uFood for thought
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We have been hearing
a lot about the 70th
anniversary of the first
use of a nuclear weapon
on human beings, in
Hiroshima on August
6, 1945. The more
however, is August 9,
when the last nuclear
weapon was used in war,
on the city of Nagasaki.
It was predictable that atomic bombs
would be used as soon as they were
developed in 1945. It was the sixth year
of World War Two, and more than 60
million people had been killed already.
But nobody would have believed then
that nuclear weapons would not be used
again in future wars.
We cannot be sure that they never
will be used in war again, of course,
but 70 years is already an impressive
accomplishment. How did we manage
that? One way to answer that question
is to consider the behaviour of United
States President Harry S Truman, who
was the man who decided to drop the
first atomic bombs in 1945 — and the
first man to decide not to drop them, in
Truman’s decision to drop the bombs
in 1945 probably did not seem as
momentous to him at the time as it looks
now. Killing tens of thousands of civilians
in cities by mass bombing (Hamburg,
Dresden, Tokyo) was practically routine
by 1945, and the atomic bombs would
have seemed like just a more efficient way
of doing the same thing.
Besides, the fact that Japanese cities
could now be destroyed by a single
plane carrying a single bomb might well
shock the Japanese government into
surrendering. That would spare the lives
of all the American soldiers (an estimated
46,000) who would die if Japan had to be
Truman had fought in World War One
(he was the only major Allied war leader
who did). Although he was not generally
seen as an imaginative man, he would
have been vividly aware of the ordeal that
awaited American soldiers if they had to
invade Japan. He would also have been
conscious that the US public would never
forgive him if they found out that he had
the bomb but did not use it to save those
So he gave the orders and the bombs
fell, adding a last quarter of a million
lives to that 60 million death toll. But five
and a half years later, when US forces in
Korea were fleeing south after Chinese
troops inter vened in the war there (“the
big bug-out ”), Truman behaved quite
It may or may not be true that US
General Douglas MacArthur, who
commanded the United Nations troops
in Korea (including a third of a million
Americans), wanted to drop atomic
bombs on China’s Manchurian provinces
to cut the supply lines of the Chinese
troops in Korea. It is certainly true that
Truman fired MacArthur, and that he
did not use nuclear weapons even though
thousands of American troops were being
killed or captured.
Truman never explained his decision,
but one possible reason is that actually
seeing what nuclear weapons do to
human beings (which nobody had yet
seen when he made his 1945 decision)
may have changed his view of them. They
were not just another new weapon. They
were the ultimate weapon, and they must
not be used. The other reason is obvious.
By late 1950, the US had between 50
and 100 nuclear weapons — but the
Soviet Union had tested its first atomic
bomb in the previous year, and by then
it already had at least half a dozen of the
things. The era of mutual deterrence had
Truman did not know for certain that
the Soviet Union would go to war if the
US dropped nuclear weapons on China.
He would have been fairly certain that
the Russians did not yet have the ability
to drop even one on the US, although
they could definitely hit America’s allies
in western Europe. But it did not matter:
Once both sides have nuclear weapons,
they get a great deal more cautious.
In the following decades, many military
theorists have worked hard to come
up with strategies that would make
nuclear weapons useful in war, and many
scientists and engineers have worked on
new techniques and technologies that
would achieve the same objective. But
nobody has had enough confidence in
their promises to use even one of these
weapons in a war.
The number of nuclear weapons in
the world (many of them much more
powerful than the Hiroshima and
Nagasaki bombs) peaked about 50,000
in the mid-1980s, and has since fallen
to about 15,000. The US and Russia
still own 93% of them, but seven other
countries now have nukes too — and still
nobody has used one in war.
It is also true that no great power has
fought any other great power directly
for 70 years, which is certainly a first in
world history. Is this because the two
world wars had been so destructive that
they created institutions like the UN
Security Council to avoid another, or
because they knew that great-power wars
would probably be nuclear wars?
Probably both, but at any rate we are
Gwynne Dyer is an independent
journalist whose articles are published in
Seventy years without a nuclear war
The Hiroshima bomb blast, as seen from the air.
WORLD IN FOCUS
with Gwynne Dyer
hen it comes to
go hard with
wholesome, grain-filled, fat-free, sugar-
There is a lot of money that goes into
ensuring you ae making a good choice
when choosing a ‘protein bar’ over a bar of
chocolate, or a ‘breakfast drink’ over plain
old chocolate milk. The reality is many
items construed as healthy options are not
even close. But these easy picks proliferate
for a reason: we do not all have oodles of
time to ensure we have food at the ready
that are able to be eaten on the go.
However with a little know-how and just
a few minutes of time (not much more
time than it takes to rip open a packet) it
can be blissfully simple to eschew those
really not so healthy packaged foods. Here
is a few ideas:
The situation — The mad morning
You reach for — A breakfast drink.
The downside — Scan the ingredients.
In between all the added vitamins and
minerals there is a hefty amount of sugar.
Knocking back a high-energy breakfast
drink only to be sat at your desk for the
next few hours is not wise.
Instead you could — Spend literally
two minutes making a smoothie. Personal
blenders can be bought for as little as
$30 and allow you to whack all your
ingredients in, push a button, then detach
the bottle and take your drink with you.
Then just rinse out the bottle at work and
you are done.
For one person, half a banana or one
date adds plenty of sweetness — no
sugar or honey required. Use whatever
fruit and leafy greens you have on hand,
for example banana, apple, spinach, kale,
lemon, orange, kiwi and mango. Add milk,
nut milk or yoghurt if you like it that way,
or just a little water or coconut water,
and a handful of ice. Experiment with
flavourings — cacao powder, maca powder,
ginger, cinnamon etc. There are no rules.
The situation — Post work-out or on-
the-run energy boost.
You reach for — A protein bar.
The downside — Thanks to the
persisting vendetta on carbs, high-protein
anything is a hugely growing category,
and protein bars are now as popular with
all-round busy people as they are with
gym-goers post-workout. Some are not
so bad, while others offer you as many
calories as a chocolate bar, just with added
protein. Check the ingredients list: how
many unpronounceable words are there?
Any dubious chemical sweeteners? If so,
perhaps this is not really what you want to
be fuelling your hardworking body with.
Instead you could — Make your own
low-carb, high protein bars and keep
them handy for when you need them.
Google will reveal hundreds of recipes
but basically, you will want nuts or nut
butter for protein (add all-natural protein
powders if you insist), something like
dates or apple to sweeten a little, and any
number of ingredients to zhuzh: coconut,
chia, linseed, hemp seeds, cacao powder or
The situation — The 3pm sugar craving.
You reach for — Dried fruit.
The downside — Fruit is naturally
packed with sugar in the form of fructose,
but because fresh fruit is very filling, we
tend to self-limit our intake. But dried
fruit, without all the liquid, can be a bit
too easy to snack on, and shop-bought
dried fruits commonly contain sulphites
as a preser vative. Some dried fruits
(cranberries for example) are sweetened
with sugar and dried fruit blends often
contain cheap oil to prevent the fruit from
sticking together. None of these are great
Instead you could — Invest in a
dehydrator (from about $60) and make
your own preser vative-free, no-added-
sugar dried fruits. Or look for freeze-dried
fruits. They are pricey, because freeze
driers are a heinously expensive piece of
technology, but the concentrated, all-
natural flavour of the various fruits is
truly delicious, and even a small handful
of freeze-dried fruit is enough to satisfy a
serious 3pm sugar craving.
The situation — You’re not a big fan of
You reach for — Vitamin water or
The downside — Sugar, or artificial
sweeteners are what is giving this water its
flavour — and possibly artificial flavours,
too. Increasingly flavoured waters are
sweetened with the plant-based stevia,
but while stevia is not known to have any
downsides the fact is scientists have not
quite worked out how our bodies process
it, so there is a question mark hanging
over its use.
Instead you could — Infuse water with
slices of fruit. Any citrus works well —
just pop in a slice or two. Add mint for
another dimension, and a cinnamon quill
for extra sweetness. Of course, you will still
be getting a little fructose from the fruit,
so this is not a calorie-free option, but it is
better and far cheaper than buying a costly
marketing drive in a plastic bottle.
The situation — Lunch at your desk.
You reach for — A nice leafy green
It comes with a pre-made dressing,
because you are not a rabbit, are you? It
has to be better than carbolicious sushi or
The downside — Lies in the dressing,
which should have ingredients printed
on it if it is packaged. There will be oil
(most likely a cheap one), sugar, gums or
starches, emulsifiers, preser vatives and
often artificial flavours as well as more salt
Instead you could — Keep a pack of
mixed salad leaves in the fridge at work
or even better, shred a big pile of cabbage,
carrot, broccoli and other veges at the
beginning of the week. If stored well, they
will keep this way for several days — so 10
minutes of slicing for up to a week’s worth
of healthy lunches. In a small jar, shake a
dressing of extra virgin olive oil and fresh
lemon juice (both of which have health
benefits), a little grainy mustard, a pinch of
salt and pepper, and keep the jar alongside
salad at work. Then it is a two minute
process to get lunch ready, no different to
prepping the bought salad. Add proteins
as you please — shredded poached
chicken is easy to prepare, or a can of plain
tuna in spring water for no trouble at all.
— New Zealand Herald
Not so healthy
Make your own smoothies over breakfast drinks and create your own salad dressing and dried fruits for healthier snacks.
A fisherman’s son and now a fisherman
himself, Kulamani Tarai knows all too well
that while the sea has provided sustenance
to his family for generations, it can also be
a cruel and deadly place.
Every morning, when he leaves his mud-
and-thatch home on India’s east coast to
venture out on his wooden boat into the
Bay of Bengal, he knows there is a chance
he will not return.
Deaths of fishermen are common along
this coastal belt of Odisha State, where
calm seas can suddenly turn violent and
swallow flimsy boats like his, leaving
families back home to grieve fathers, sons
and brothers lost at sea.
But a new state-run voice messaging
mobile ser vice for fishermen, which
provides weather updates, ocean status
forecasts and locations of where to scout
for a fish, is trying to change this. It
already has more than 200,000 subscribers.
“ I know how devastating it is if you are
not aware of the weather. During the
horrific 1999 super cyclone, hundreds of
our fishermen brothers were killed,” said
Tarai, 59, sitting with other fishermen in
the Jagatsinghpur district.
“O ur main concern was how to stay
safe. Now, we do not have so much fear.
Whenever we get a voice message saying
the sea condition is rough, we never go out
for fishing,” he added.
The voice messaging ser vice — a one -
minute bulletin sent to subscribers cell
phones five times a day — was launched
by Odisha’s fisheries department in
It may already have had an impact.
Government data shows there were 45
fisherman who died in Odisha in 2014,
down from 57 in 2013.
India’s fishing communities, about
four million people, are among the most
impoverished in the country with more
than 60%earning less than a dollar a
day, according to the 2010 census by
the Central Marine Fisheries Research
The International Labour Organisation
sees fishing at sea as one of the world’s
most dangerous occupations and the
government of Odisha is well aware of
“Odisha has seen calamities like cyclones
and floods 77 times over the last 100
years. The fishing community, particularly
those living on the coast, bear the burnt
and are always the worst affected,” said
Bishnupada Sethi, secretary of Odisha’s
“Their miseries multiply due to poor
shelter, illiteracy, poverty and, above all, a
lack of access to information.”
The voice messages, all in the local
language Odia, give information on
potential fishing zones, weather warnings,
ocean status forecasts and market rates for
fish such as hilsa, mackerel, prawns and
The messages also provide information
on fishing bans that are temporarily
imposed and offer regular updates on the
various welfare schemes offered by the
Sethi said there are also plans for a
similar ser vice for the poor communities
working in the livestock, dairy and poultry
sectors, adding such a ser vice would help
bridge the gap between the “information-
rich” and the “information-poor”.
Local fisherman have welcomed the
ser vice, adding that it has not only helped
keep them safe, but also increased their
“ Two years ago, I use to catch only 50kg
of fish daily,” said 45-year-old Sanatan
Behera, a fisherman at Chilika lake in
Odisha’s Puri district.
“Now, after I know the exact fish
location through the voice message, I am
able to catch almost double.”
Technology saving Indian fishermen’s lives
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