Home' Greymouth Star : November 26th 2013 Contents Greymouth Star
4 - Tuesday, November 26, 2013
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uLetters to the editor
1095 - Pope Urban urges the faithful to wrest
the Holy Land from the Muslims, heralding
start of Crusades.
1703 - A two-day Great Storm
rages throughout southern England,
ooding the ames and Severn
rivers and killing at least 8000
1789 - A day of anksgiving is
set aside by US President George
Washington to observe the adoption
of America's Constitution.
1914 - HMS Bulwark, a British battleship
with a complement of 750 men, blows up as it
is taking ammunition aboard. ere were only
1940 - Half-million Jews of Warsaw, Poland,
are ordered to live within a walled ghetto.
1949 - India adopts constitution as federal
republic within British Commonwealth.
1950 - China enters the Korean con ict.
1975 - A federal jury nds Lynette "Squeaky"
Fromme, a follower of Charles Manson, guilty
of trying to assassinate US President Gerald
uWest Coast yesteryear
uToday in history
William Cowper, English poet (1731-1800);
Eugene Ionesco, Romanian-born French
dramatist (1909-1994); Robert Goulet, US
singer (1933-2007); Tina Turner,
US pop singer (1939-); Bruce
Paltrow, US director-producer
(1943-2002); John McVie, of rock
group Fleetwood Mac (1945-);
Dave Hughes, Australian comedian
(1970-); Anna Millward, Australian
cyclist (1971-); Chris Hughes,
American co-founder of Facebook (1983-);
Louis Ducruet, son of Princess Stephanie of
"Love your neighbours, but don't pull down
the fence." --- Chinese proverb.
" e righteous cry out, and the Lord hears
them; He delivers them from all their troubles."
--- (Psalm 34:17).
backing from the
of Commerce, Cobden
water-ski manufacturer Mr C G Uddstrom has
been unable to obtain a licence for the import of
a powerful outboard motor.
Mr Udstrom is seeking the motor, more
powerful than can be purchased in New
Zealand, so he can e ectively test his water-skis
at various speeds.
Businesspeople in Greymouth should give
some thought to the advantages of installing
community lighting, it was stated at last
night's meeting of the Greymouth Chamber
of Commerce. e chamber discussed the poor
comparison between the lighting in the business
area of the town and the new lighting in Tainui
Under a community lighting scheme, the
power board installs lighting in the business
area which is on a separate meter to the street
lighting. Shop owners pay for the power
according to the size of their shops.
An evening operation at the Greymouth
Hospital for abdominal injuries was the sequel
to a road mishap on the road to Ruanaga
yesterday afternoon. Injured was Earland Herbert
Patterson, a 34-year-old single man who lives at
9 Keith Road, Paroa, and who is a member of the
Goldlight co-operaive coalmine party.
Patterson was riding a motorcycle which
was involved in a collision with a car driven
by Hendrik Bout, a Dutchman, from Seven
Mile Road, Runanga. Bout was not hurt but
Patterson required medical treatment from Dr B
W Nixon, having been hit in the abdomen by a
car door handle.
Later he had to be admitted to hospital
and subsequently was taken to theatre for an
uToday s birthdays
uFood for thought
Printed and published by the
Greymouth Evening Star Co Limited
3 Werita Street, PO Box 3, Greymouth
03 769 7900 (o ce)
769 7913 (editorial)
768 6205 (fax)
Sports Editor Tui Bromley
Chief Reporter Laura Mills
03 769 7913
03 755 8422
After two years of groundwork, Niwa
scientists have nally unlocked the
mystery of the elusive lamprey breeding
Dr Cindy Baker, a freshwater scientist
based in Hamilton, and Tyler Buchinger,
a visiting lamprey scientist from Michigan
State University were on a eld expedition
in the Okuti River catchment on Banks
Peninsula recently, tracking lamprey that
the Niwa team had electronically tagged a
year earlier in a bid to discover where they
e team uncovered three nesting sites
in the river made by monogamous pairs of
lamprey --- the rst discovery of its kind in
the Southern Hemisphere.
Lamprey and hag sh are the only living
jawless vertebrates, over 360 million years
old. In New Zealand, lamprey (also known
as kanakana and piharau) are an important
taonga species for Maori, once proli c,
although now believed to be in decline
and rarely seen --- especially in the North
Northern Hemisphere species of lamprey
are known to spawn their eggs in the
gravel of riverbeds, but the Southern
Hemisphere species is quite unique in
pairing up underneath large boulders and
secreting their eggs in an adhesive clump
to the underside of the rock.
" at's why spawning lamprey haven't
been spotted before," Dr Baker said.
Lamprey populations are strongest in
the South Island but little is known about
their biology, where they spawn, what cues
are used to select spawning streams and
their preferred habitat.
Dr Baker says she hopes that now they
have discovered the spawning nests, the
information learned can be used to help
restore lamprey populations and habitats.
What is known about lamprey is that
the young larvae spend several years living
in the sediment of stream beds before
undergoing metamorphosis and heading
out to sea. ey feed by burrowing into the
esh of other mammals before returning
as adults to freshwater to spawn. ey
will spend up to 16 months in freshwater
before spawning occurs. Once spawning is
complete they die.
Scientists are also working to discover
the chemical compounds or pheromones
migratory adult lamprey use to select
spawning streams, as well as that secreted
by the male adult lamprey to attract
females to the nest site, with the aim of
using the chemical cues to attract lamprey
back to areas where they have declined.
Dr Baker says the Southern Hemisphere
species have morphological di erences
from the Northern Hemisphere species
and it may be possible that the female
lamprey is also secreting a pheromone.
" at's the next step of our research."
Niwa freshwater scientist Dr Cindy Baker discovers a lamprey spawning site in the
Okuti River catcment, Banks Peninsula.
Scientists make surprise lamprey discovery
A male adult lamprey.
After feverishly trying to
derail the international
community's nuclear deal
with Iran in recent weeks,
Israeli Prime Minister
now has little choice but to accept an
agreement that he has derided as deeply
Netanyahu believes the six-month deal
leaves Iran's military nuclear capabilities
largely intact, while giving Iran relief from
painful economic sanctions, undermining
negotiations on the next stage. At the
same time, Israel's strongest piece of
leverage, the threat of a military strike
on Iran, seems to be out of the question
despite Netanyahu's insistence it would
remain on the table.
"Today the world became a much
more dangerous place because the most
dangerous regime in the world made a
signi cant step in obtaining the most
dangerous weapons in the world,"
Netanyahu told his Cabinet yesterday,
calling the deal a "historic mistake".
He said Israel was not bound by the
agreement, and reiterated Israel's right to
"defend itself by itself," a veiled reference
to a possible military strike against Iran.
Netanyahu has spent years warning the
world against the dangers of a nuclear-
armed Iran, calling it an existential
threat due to Iranian references to
Israel's destruction, its support of hostile
militant groups on Israel's borders and
its development of missiles capable of
reaching Israel and beyond.
Israel also believes that a nuclear-armed
Iran will provide militant groups like
Lebanon's Hezbollah an "umbrella" of
protection that will embolden them to
carry out attacks.
As momentum for a deal built the past
week, Netanyahu delivered speech after
speech and held meeting after meeting,
urging the world to seek better terms
from Iran. Last week, he hosted French
President Francois Hollande, then rushed
o to Moscow for talks with President
Vladimir Putin in a last-ditch attempt to
alter the agreement.
Netanyahu had said that any deal must
ensure that Iran's enriching of uranium ---
a key step toward making a nuclear bomb
--- must end. He also said all enriched
material should be removed from the
Islamic Republic, and called for the
demolition of a plutonium reactor under
But after the deal was announced, it was
clear that Netanyahu made little headway.
While freezing parts of Iran's enrichment
capabilities, it will leave others, including
the centrifuges that are used for
enrichment, intact. e deal relies heavily
on Iranian goodwill, a still-to-be-de ned
system of international inspections and
the continued pain of sanctions that
remain in place.
Yoel Guzansky, who used to monitor
the Iranian nuclear programme for Israel's
National Security Council, said a deal that
would satisfy Israel was unlikely from the
outset due to di ering "red lines" between
Israel and the United States.
While Israel sees any enrichment as a
cause for concern, the US was willing to
tolerate nuclear development as long as
it was unable to produce weapons, said
Guzansky, who is now an analyst at the
Institute for National Security Studies, a
Tel Aviv think tank.
"It's a bad agreement because of what
it symbolises," he said. "It means Iran is
getting an acceptance, a signature that
it's a legitimate country." Even worse for
Israel, he added, the agreement amounts
to "acceptance of Iran as a nuclear
United States o cials said the deal was
just a rst step and further negotiations
aim for a nal agreement that would
prevent any threat from Iran's nuclear
ey said the relief from sanctions
was minimal and that the most biting
economic measures, including sanctions
on Iran's vital oil industry, remained in
place and more could be imposed if Iran
fails to follow through.
Guzansky predicted that despite
the tough rhetoric, Israel would move
quickly to repair relations with the US,
its closest and most important ally, and
do everything possible to in uence the
outcome of the world's nal-status talks
at could include speeches, threats
of military action or behind-the-scenes
diplomacy. Israel is not a direct participant
in the talks but remains in close contact
with many of the negotiators.
e relationship with the US will be
critical as Israel conducts peace talks with
the Palestinians in the coming months.
United States Secretary of State John
Kerry, who is mediating the talks, has
set an April target date for reaching
an agreement, and there is widespread
speculation that the Americans will step
up their involvement as the deadline
Guzansky also said Israel's main card ---
military action --- appears to be out of the
question right now.
"How can Israel, after the entire
international community sat with Iran,
shook hands with Iran and signed an
agreement, operate independently?" he
said. "It will be seen as someone who
sabotages 10 years of trying to get Iran to
the table and trying to get a deal."
Enrichment is at the heart of the
dispute because it can be used for peaceful
purposes or for producing a nuclear bomb.
Tehran insists its nuclear programme
is for civilian usage such as energy
production and cancer treatment.
Uranium at low levels of enrichment, up
to 20%, is used in research or generating
electricity. Uranium must be enriched
to a far higher level --- above 90% --- to
produce a warhead. So far, Iran is not
known to have produced any at that level,
but Israel argues that the technology for
doing so is the same as that for enriching
at lower levels.
Under the compromise, enrichment
would be capped at the 5% level, and
Iran's stockpile of 20% uranium would
be "neutralised," e ectively preventing it
from reaching weapons-grade level. Also
construction on the plutonium reactor
is to be suspended. e White House
also promised "intrusive monitoring" of
Iranian nuclear facilities.
Israel says any enriched uranium in
Iranian hands is potentially dangerous,
since its centrifuges can quickly convert
it to weapons grade. Israel believes
that Iran's ability to keep its nuclear
infrastructure intact will allow it to
quickly resume the programme if the later
"Iran is a threshold nuclear country,"
said Netanyahu's Cabinet minister for
intelligence a airs, Yuval Steinitz. "So far
it was completely against United Nations
security resolutions, and now it gets
some kind of recognition at least for the
next six months as a threshold nuclear
In all, about 250kg of highly enriched
uranium is needed to make a weapon.
Iran already has about 200kg of enriched
Ephraim Asculai, a former o cial at
Israel's Atomic Energy Commission, said
the agreement was not all bad for Israel,
since it capped enrichment activity and
slowed construction of the plutonium
reactor. But he said Iran's ability to "break
out" and make a nuclear explosive device
remained intact, perhaps in as little as
four to six months once a decision is
" e good part of the deal is that
enrichment stops at the present level and
that is also some of the bad news because
enrichment does go on," he said.
Moments after Iran and world powers
signed a landmark nuclear deal, US
Secretary of State John Kerry was
already looking ahead to the "even more
di cult" e orts to probe Tehran's atomic
capabilities and try to ease international
concerns that they cannot be diverted for
weapons development. Iran's President
Hassan Rouhani, meanwhile, said his
country is ready to "remove created
doubts" about Iran's nuclear programme,
which Tehran insists is fully peaceful.
Both Kerry's predictions and Rouhani's
promises will shape the next six months
in the rst step of an accord that could
help rede ne the politics of the region
and reset relations between the US and
Iran after nearly 35 years of mutual
recriminations and suspicions. Tough and
expansive UN inspections are ahead. Iran
also must keep up its end of the bargain
with measures such as curbing uranium
enrichment and halting work on a new
Here is a look at the demands, the
details and the political ripples from the
deal hammered out in Geneva:
From a pure number-crunching
standpoint, Iranian compliance would
make enrichment levels and stockpiles
insu cient to create a nuclear weapon
or move quickly toward warhead
e centrepiece of the agreement is
the degree of Iran's uranium enrichment,
which is the process of converting
concentrated uranium into nuclear fuel.
Iran has pledged to keep its enrichment
at no higher than 5%. is is well below
what is needed for weapons-grade
material at more than 90% enrichment.
It would allow Iran to make fuel for its
lone energy-producing reactor, a Russian-
built plant in Bushehr on the Persian
Gulf coast. But it would keep the levels
too low for a weapon or even a fast-track
e ort at so-called "breakout" toward
Iran already has a signi cant stockpile
of higher-enriched uranium: an estimated
185kgs of 20%-enriched uranium. is is
the highest level acknowledged by Tehran.
e Geneva deal calls for Iran, over the
next six months, to either "dilute" the
material below 5% or have it repurposed
into powder --- which makes it useable
as nuclear fuel but very di cult to be
further boosted. In recent years, Iran has
repurposed an amount of 20% enrichment
similar to its current stockpile.
Specialized centrifuges are needed in the
enrichment process. e deal blocks the
installation of any new centrifuges for the
next six months. is means Iran could
not signi cantly accelerate production of
even the 5% enriched uranium.
Beyond enrichment, Iran also agreed
to halt work on a planned heavy water
reactor in Arak, about 255km south-west
of Tehran. Heavy water is a compound
used to cool nuclear reactors, which do
not need enriched uranium to operate.
Heavy water reactors also produce
a greater amount of plutonium as a
byproduct, which could be used to make
warhead material. Iran does not currently
possess the technology to extract the
plutonium, and promised in Geneva not
to seek it.
Inspectors for the UN's nuclear
watchdog agency have made frequent
visits to Iranian facilities for years. e
Geneva deal gives them faster and broader
access as the linchpin of monitoring and
Iran agreed to provide "daily access" to
International Atomic Energy Agency
teams at the two main enrichment
sites: Natanz and Fordo. Natanz, about
260km south-east of Tehran, is the main
enrichment facility. Fordo, built into the
side of a mountain about 100km south
of Tehran, was disclosed by Iran in 2009.
e area is heavily protected by the
UN nuclear inspectors have toured both
sites, but the Geneva pact would allow
everyday access to review UN surveillance
e expanded UN reach also stretches
to centrifuge construction and storage
sites, uranium mines and mills and closer
scrutiny of all aspects of the planned Arak
Another important concession by Iran
is its pledge to address all concerns in
UN Security Council resolutions on
Tehran's nuclear ambitions. One key site
is the Parchin military compound outside
Tehran. Parchin has been suspected of
housing a secret underground facility
used for Iran's nuclear programme,
a claim denied by Iran. UN nuclear
inspectors twice visited the site, but seek
a third tour.
Before the deal was reached, Iran's
president often said settling the nuclear
stando was a "win-win" proposition.
In the short-term, it may turn out an
easier ride for Rouhani than President
Barack Obama, who faces conservative
critics calling the deal an appeasement
and America's main Mideast ally Israel
denouncing it from every angle. A
"historic mistake," complained Israel
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.
Rouhani has his own hard-line
opposition, which is increasingly uneasy
about Iran's outreach to Washington.
But Rouhani has the backing of Iran's
top authority, Supreme Leader Ayatollah
Ali Khamenei, and the deal is likely to
elevate his government's image.
at is because Iran did not give up
the basic elements of its enrichment
programme, which is seen as a symbol
of Iran's self-promoted image as a
technological leader in the Islamic world.
Khamenei had set this as a "red line" in
the talks. e decision of world powers
to allow Iran's enrichment programme
to continue --- while concentrating on
output levels --- gave Rouhani a major
credibility boost at home and permitted
the rst-step accord to move forward.
For the west, the deal does not mark
a major roll back of sanctions. Iran
still faces widespread blocks from
international banking networks and oil
sales, which have cut the country's main
currency source by more than half.
e deal does, however, o er some
sanctions easing on gold and other
precious metals, Iran's automobile and
aviation industries and petrochemical
exports. e world powers at the talks
--- the ve permanent Security Council
members plus Germany --- further
agreed to hold o any new nuclear-
related sanctions for at least six months
in exchange for Iranian adherence to the
It also opens up $4.2 billion from oil
sales to be transferred in instalments over
the next six months as various compliance
stages are reached. at is still a very
small sum in a country that was once one
of OPEC's top exporters.
e White House estimated the total
bene t for Iran at about $7b, which was
described as a "fraction" of the nancial
hit from sanctions over the half-year
But the deal's rst stage appeared
structured more with reputation than
relief in mind.
If Iran fails to abide by the guidelines,
its international pro le is left in tatters
and chances for further sanctions' easing
is lost. It also would likely escalate
calls from Israel, Gulf Arab states and
elsewhere for possible military action
against Iran's nuclear facilities.
Few options for Israel
Iran's President Hassan Rouhani
Israel's Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
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