Home' Greymouth Star : January 6th 2014 Contents Greymouth Star
4 - Monday, January 6, 2014
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uLetters to the editor
1066 - Harold is crowned king of England
following the death of his brother-in-law
Edward the Confessor.
1838 - Samuel Morse rst publicly
demonstrates his telegraph, in
Morristown, New Jersey.
1852 - Louis Braille, French
inventor of a system to enable blind
people to read, dies.
1882 - Richard Henry Dana, US
lawyer and author, dies; he wrote the
popular sea novel Two Years Before e Mast.
1919 - eodore Roosevelt, 26th US
president (1901-1909), dies.
1981 - Scottish author A J Cronin, author
of e Keysof the Kingdom and other best-
selling novels, dies. He was also the creator
of the British television series Dr Finlay's
1994 - Figure skater Nancy Kerrigan is
clubbed on the leg by an assailant in Detroit.
Four men, including the ex-husband of
Kerrigan's rival, Tonya Harding, are later
sentenced to prison.
uWest Coast yesteryear
uToday in history
Joan of Arc, French leader and saint (1412-
1431); Jacques-Etienne Montgol er, French
balloonist (1745-1799); Max Bruch,
German composer (1838-1920);
Carl Sandburg, US poet (1878-
1967); Tom Mix, US cowboy lm
star (1880-1940); Murray Rose,
Australian Olympic champion
swimmer (1939-2012); Bonnie
Franklin, US actress (1944-);
Anthony Minghella, British lm director
(1954-2008); Rowan Atkinson, British actor-
" ere may be peace without joy, and joy
without peace, but the two combined make
happiness." --- John Buchan, 1st Baron
Tweedsmuir, Scottish author (1875-1940).
"Trust in the Lord with all your heart and
lean not on your own understanding."
--- (6 Proverbs 3:5).
Auld Lang Syne, the
traditional Scots' song
sung to say goodbye
to the old year and
to ring in the new, was heard by hundreds of
Greymouth people last week. But one local
resident, Union Garage owner Mr J P Low,
heard it in perhaps the most novel and pleasing
way possible --- direct from Scotland itself !
e rendition came clear as a bell from over
13,000 miles away from Mr Low's relatives at
Jervison House, Motherwell, Lanarkshire, near
Mr Low's special telephone call at 7am on
New Year's Day was to greet and congratulate
his brother on the occasion of his golden
wedding jubilee. It was the rst time Mr
Low had spoken to his brother since he left
Scotland in 1923.
A Camerons couple, currently holidaying in
Christchurch, won second prize of £3000 in
the Golden Kiwi lottery drawn this morning.
Winners are Mr and Mrs Charles Taylor, who
purchased the ticket from Kumara grocer Mr
Phil Du y.
Mr Taylor is head bushman for United
Sawmills Ltd at Camerons and lives in a
company house. e couple have a daughter,
Judith, 21, and a son, Kenneth, 16.
Night trotting is fast becoming rmly
established in Greymouth. is was
emphasised on Saturday night when the
Greymouth Trotting Club held the rst day of
its two-day summer meeting at Victoria Park
Weather conditions were unpleasant but
did not deter about 3000 from going to the
raceway to invest £27,245. Considering the
adverse weather, this was an excellent result,
showing an increase of £5899 on the equivalent
daytime meeting last year.
uToday s birthdays
uFood for thought
Printed and published by the
Greymouth Evening Star Co Limited
3 Werita Street, PO Box 3, Greymouth
03 769 7900 (o ce)
769 7913 (editorial)
768 6205 (fax)
Sports Editor Tui Bromley
Chief Reporter Laura Mills
03 769 7913
03 755 8422
Fifty years ago, ashtrays
seemed to be on every table
and desk. Athletes and even
Fred Flintstone endorsed
cigarettes in tv commercials.
Smoke hung in the air in
restaurants, o ces and aeroplane cabins.
More than 42% of United States adults
smoked, and there was a good chance
your doctor was among them.
e turning point came on January 11,
1964. It was on that Saturday morning
that US surgeon general Luther Terry
released an emphatic and authoritative
report that said smoking causes illness
and death --- and the government should
do something about it.
In the decades that followed, warning
labels were put on cigarette packs,
cigarette commercials were banned, taxes
were raised and new restrictions were
placed on where people could light up.
"It was the beginning," said Kenneth
Warner, a University of Michigan
public health professor who is a leading
authority on smoking and health.
It was not the end. While the US
smoking rate has fallen by more than half
to 18%, that still translates to more than
43 million smokers. Smoking is still far
and away the leading preventable cause
of death in the US. Some experts predict
large numbers of Americans will pu
away for decades to come.
Nevertheless, the Terry report has
been called one of the most important
documents in US public health history,
and on its 50th anniversary, o cials are
not only rolling out new anti-smoking
campaigns but re ecting on what the
nation did right that day.
e report's bottom-line message was
hardly revolutionary. Since 1950, head-
turning studies that found higher rates of
lung cancer in heavy smokers had been
appearing in medical journals. A widely
read article in Reader's Digest in 1952,
Cancer by the Carton, contributed to the
largest drop in cigarette consumption
since the Depression. In 1954, the
American Cancer Society announced that
smokers had a higher cancer risk.
But the tobacco industry fought back.
Manufacturers came out with cigarettes
with lters that they claimed would trap
toxins before they settled into smokers'
lungs. And in 1954, they placed a full-
page advert in hundreds of newspapers
in which they argued that research
linking their products and cancer was
It was a brilliant counter-o ensive that
left physicians and the public unsure how
dangerous smoking really was. Cigarette
In 1957 and 1959, surgeon general
Leroy Burney issued statements that
heavy smoking causes lung cancer. But
they had little impact.
Amid pressure from health advocates,
President John F Kennedy's surgeon
general, Dr. Luther Terry, announced
in 1962 that he was convening an
expert panel to examine all the evidence
and issue a comprehensive, debate-
settling report. To ensure the panel
was unimpeachable, he let the tobacco
industry veto any proposed members it
regarded as biased.
Surveys indicated a third to a half of
all physicians smoked tobacco products
at the time, and the committee re ected
the culture: Half its 10 members were
smokers, who pu ed away during
committee meetings. Terry himself was a
Dr Eugene Guthrie, an assistant
surgeon general, helped persuade Terry to
kick the habit a few months before
the press conference releasing the
"I told him, 'You gotta quit that. I think
you can get away with a pipe --- if you
don't do it openly.' He said, 'You gotta
be kidding!' I said, 'No, I'm not. It just
wouldn't do. If you smoke any cigarettes,
you better do it in a closet,'" Guthrie
recalled in a recent interview with the
e press conference was held on a
Saturday partly out of concern about its
e ect on the stock market. About 200
e committee said cigarette smoking
clearly did cause lung cancer and was
responsible for the nation's escalating
male cancer death rate. It also said
there was no valid evidence lters were
reducing the danger. e committee
also said --- more vaguely --- that the
government should address the problem.
" is was front-page news, and every
American knew it," said Robin Koval,
president of Legacy, an anti-smoking
Cigarette consumption dropped a
whopping 15% over the next three
months but then began to rebound.
Health o cials realised it would take
more than one report.
In 1965, Congress required cigarette
packs to carry warning labels. Two years
later, the Federal Communications
Commission ordered tv and radio stations
to provide free air time for anti-smoking
public service announcements.
Cigarette commercials were banned in
Still, progress was slow. Warner recalled
teaching at the University of Michigan
in 1972, when nearly half the faculty
members at the school of public health
were smokers. He was one of them.
"I felt like a hypocrite and an idiot," he
said. But smoking was still the norm, and
it was di cult to quit, he said.
e 1970s also saw the birth of a
movement to protect non-smokers
from cigarette fumes, with no-smoking
sections on aeroplanes, in restaurants
and in other places. ose eventually
gave way to complete smoking bans.
Cigarette machines disappeared, cigarette
taxes rose, and restrictions on the sale of
cigarettes to minors got tougher.
Tobacco companies also came under
increasing legal attack. In the biggest case
of them all, more than 40 States brought
lawsuits demanding compensation for
the costs of treating smoking-related
illnesses. Big Tobacco settled in 1998 by
agreeing to pay about $200 billion and
curtail marketing of cigarettes to youths.
In 1998, while the settlement was
being completed, tobacco executives
appeared before Congress and publicly
acknowledged for the rst time that their
products can cause lung cancer and be
Experts agree that the Terry report
clearly triggered decades of changes that
whittled the smoking rate down. But it
was based on data that was already out
there. Why, then, did it make such a
For one thing, the drumbeat about
the dangers of smoking was getting
louder in 1964, experts said. But the
way the committee was assembled and
the carefully neutral manner in which
it reached its conclusion were at least as
important, said Dr Tim McAfee, director
of the O ce on Smoking and Health
at the Centres for Disease Control and
At the same time, he and others said
any celebration of the anniversary must
be tempered by the size of the problem
that still exists.
Each year, an estimated 443,000
people die prematurely from smoking
or exposure to secondhand smoke, and
8.6m live with a serious illness caused by
smoking, according to the CDC.
Donald Shopland nds that depressing.
Fifty years ago, he was a 19-year-old
who smoked two packs a day while
working as a clerk for the surgeon
general's committee. He quit cigarettes
right after the 1964 report came out,
and went on to a long and distinguished
public health career in which he wrote
or edited scores of books and reports on
smoking's e ects.
"We should be much further along than
we are," the Georgia retiree lamented.
A widely read article in Reader's Digest in 1952, Cancer by the Carton, contributed to
the largest drop in cigarette consumption since the Depression.
Historic smoking report
Millions of people step aboard
aeroplanes each day, complaining about
the lack of legroom and overhead space
but almost taking for granted that they
can travel thousands of kilometres in just
a few hours.
Last Wednesday marked the 100th
anniversary of the world's rst
commercial ight: a 23-minute hop
across Florida's Tampa Bay.
e St Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line
was subsidised by St Petersburg o cials
who wanted more winter tourists in their
city. e alternative: an 11-hour train ride
Pilot Tony Jannus had room for just
one passenger, who sat next to him in the
ree months later --- when the tourism
season ended --- so did the subsidy. e
airline had carried 1204 passengers but
would never y again.
With the anniversary in mind, the
Associated Press reached out to today's
aviation leaders to see what they are
predicting for the future of ying.
Answers have been edited for length and
In ve years
Richard Anderson, chief executive Delta
Air Lines: "Just over a decade ago airlines
seemed to be buying every 50-seat
aircraft they could get their hands on.
But the real utility of those small jets has
come and gone and in the next ve years
we'll see their numbers in the United
States continue to dwindle."
Gary Kelly, chief executive of Southwest
Airlines: "We'll have fewer airlines,
but they will be bigger, stronger and
Maurice J Gallagher, jr, chief executive
of Allegiant Travel Co: " e next
ve years will be all about increasing
automation and decreasing labour cost.
e industry is already implementing
mobile boarding passes, bag drops,
even self-boarding. ese processes will
become more prevalent and signi cantly
reduce the number of employees the
customer needs to interact with."
In 25 years
David Barger, chief executive of Jet
Blue Airways: " e freedom to travel
between any two points in the world will
be commonplace. ere will be billions of
travellers every year ying on new aircraft
that will be environmentally friendly;
in fact, they will be making zero-carbon
travel maybe even a reality."
Mark Dunkerley, chief executive
Hawaiian Airlines: "Many of today's
consumers will be priced out of the air: a
sad legacy to 30 years of massive progress
in democratising air travel. Failure to
invest in aviation infrastructure and the
insatiable appetite for regulation will not
be o set by relatively modest
further improvements in aircraft
James Hogan, chief executive of Etihad
Airways: "A new generation of airlines,
who have the vision and willingness
to be di erent, will succeed in cutting
costs, improving productivity and nding
a ordable ways of accessing new markets.
e emerging markets --- the Middle
East, Africa, Southeast Asia --- will
become established markets and Abu
Dhabi will be one of the uniting global
Sir Richard Branson, president of
Virgin Atlantic Air ways: "I have no
doubt that during my lifetime we will
be able to y from London to Sydney
in under two hours, with minimal
environmental impact. e awe-inspiring
views of our beautiful planet below and
zero-gravity passenger fun will bring a
whole new meaning to in- ight
Je Smisek, chief executive of United
Airlines: " e airframe and engine
manufacturers continue to develop
aircraft that are more fuel-e cient,
have lower maintenance costs and have
greater range and utility. Longer term,
I believe manufacturers will explore
engine and airframe technology that
could signi cantly reduce travel times,
but advances in this area would have to
be safe and economical to make a real
impact on our industry."
In 100 years
David Siegel, chief executive of Frontier
Airlines: " e rst ight was just 18
miles (29km) long, but now look how far
we can go. Perhaps in the future, experts
will be designing futuristic propulsion
systems. We could see innovations in
aircraft design, local community-based air
transport with smaller, higher e ciency
aircraft, and maybe even pilotless
Doug Parker, chief executive of
American Airlines: "I am quite certain
that Tony Jannus never could have
imagined the size and importance of
commercial aviation today, or the impact
it had on changing our world. Similarly, I
cannot imagine what commercial aviation
will look like in 2114. I imagine whatever
state it is, though, it will be extremely
important and its continued development
will be a key part of the story that built
Ben Baldanza, chief executive of
Spirit Airlines: "Google's 'put me there'
technology implemented into its maps
software renders all airlines obsolete."
100 years of commercial flying --- what's next?
e world's rst regular scheduled commercial ight operated between St Petersburg and
Tampa in Florida. A Benoist XIV oatplane began ying the route on January 1, 1914.
e Benoist XIV oatplane, in 1914.
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