Home' Greymouth Star : February 10th 2014 Contents Greymouth Star
4 - Monday, February 10, 2014
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uLetters to the editor
1840 - Britain's Queen Victoria marries
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
1842 - In Australia, Moreton Bay is declared
o cially open to free settlers by Governor
1873 - NSW coal miners win a 10.5-hour
day after a six-week strike against 12-hour
1879 - Bulgaria's rst
parliament opens in the town of
1879 - Outlaw Ned Kelly holds
up Jerilderie post o ce in NSW.
1932 - Edgar Wallace, British
author of thrillers, dies.
1933 - e rst singing
telegram is introduced by the Postal Telegram
Company in New York.
1939 - Japanese forces occupy Hainan Island,
1942 - Glenn Miller receives the rst ever
gold disc for selling one million copies of
Chattanooga Choo Choo.
uWest Coast yesteryear
uToday in history
Charles Lamb, English writer and essayist
(1775-1834); Boris Pasternak, Soviet writer
(1890-1960); Bertold Brecht,
German poet and playwright
(1898-1956); Leontyne Price, US
soprano (1927-); Robert Wagner,
US actor (1930-); Roberta Flack,
US singer (1937-); Peter Allen,
Australian entertainer (1944-
1992); Mark Spitz, champion US
swimmer (1950-); Greg Norman,
Australian golfer (1955-); Laura Dern, US
actor (1967-); Emma Roberts, American
"Culture is on the horns of this dilemma:
if profound and noble it must remain rare, if
common it must become mean." --- George
Santayana, Spanish-born philosopher (1863-
"For I resolved to know nothing while I
was with you except Jesus Christ and Him
cruci ed." --- 1 Corinthians 2:2
of the Kotuku Surf
Life Saving Club
swam within ve to
10 yards of a 6ft shark while swimming 100
yards o Karoro beach yesterday morning, the
club captain Mr K Dixon said afterwards. Mr
Dixon said he did not think the shark would
have attacked but the surfmen swam quickly
back to shore just to be on the safe side.
It was the second shark sighting o Karoro
within a few days. Late last week a surfcaster
shing for snapper hooked a 6ft shark.
Former rugby league international Charlie
McBride entered a new competitive sport on
Saturday, golf. Playing in his rst competition
match, the junior section of the Greymouth
Golf Club's summer tournament at Kaiata,
McBride had a 27-hole net of 93, 16 strokes
under par gures, a very auspicious entry into
the gol ng world.
He won the morning net for junior men with
e search for the body of 47-year-old
Herbert George Williams who went missing
on Saturday evening when a 12ft boat powered
by an outboard motor capsized about half a
mile from the shore of Lake Brunner, between
Moana and Te Kinga --- a spot known as
Horseshoe Bay --- was called o at mid-
morning without any sign of the missing man.
e two other men on the boat for a shing
trip, Leonard James Pope and Robert Frederick
Woodstock, who could not swim, clung to
the overturned boat and eventually made it to
ere have been a number of drownings in
the lake over the past 100 years, and in many
cases the bodies have never been recovered.
uToday s birthdays
uFood for thought
Printed and published by the
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3 Werita Street, PO Box 3, Greymouth
03 769 7900 (o ce)
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Sports Editor Tui Bromley
Chief Reporter Laura Mills
03 769 7913
03 755 8422
United States health
o cials have begun
to predict the end of
cigarette smoking in
ey have long wished
for a cigarette-free
America, but shied away from calling
for smoking rates to fall to zero or near
zero by any particular year. e power of
tobacco companies and popularity of their
products made such a goal seem like a
But a con uence of changes has recently
prompted public health leaders to start
throwing around phrases like "endgame"
and "tobacco-free generation." Now, they
talk about the slowly-declining adult
smoking rate dropping to 10% in the next
decade and to 5% or lower by 2050.
Acting US Surgeon General Boris
Lushniak last month released a 980-
page report on smoking that pushed for
stepped-up tobacco-control measures.
His news conference was an unusually
animated showing of anti-smoking
bravado, with Lushniak nearly yelling,
repeatedly, "Enough is enough!"
"I can't accept that we're just allowing
these numbers to trickle down," he said,
in a recent inter view with the AP. "We
believe we have the public health tools to
get us to the zero level."
is is not the rst time a US health
o cial has spoken so boldly. In 1984,
surgeon general C Everett Koop called
for a "smokefree society" by the year 2000.
However, Koop a bold talker on many
issues didn't o er speci cs on how to
achieve such a goal.
"What's di erent today is that we
have policies and programmes that have
been proven to drive down tobacco use,"
said Matthew Myers, president of the
Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. "We
couldn't say that in 1984."
Among the things that have changed:
Cigarette taxes have increased, making
smokes more expensive. ough prices
vary from state to state, on average a pack
of cigarettes that would have sold for
about $1.75 20 years ago would cost more
than triple that now.
Laws banning smoking in restaurants,
bars and workplaces have popped up all
over America. Airline ights have long
been o -limits for smoking.
Polls show that cigarette smoking is no
longer considered normal behaviour, and
is now less popular among teens than
Federal o cials are increasingly
aggressive about anti-smoking advertising.
e Food and Drug Administration
launched a new youth tobacco prevention
campaign last week. At about the same
time, the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention debuted a third, $60-million
round of its successful anti-tobacco ad
campaign this one featuring poignant,
deathbed images of a woman featured in
Tobacco companies, once considered
impervious to legal attack, have su ered
some huge defeats in court. Perhaps
the biggest was the 1998 settlement of
a case brought by more than 40 states
demanding compensation for the costs
of treating smoking-related illnesses. Big
Tobacco agreed to pay about $200 billion
and curtail marketing of cigarettes to
Retailing of cigarettes is changing, too.
CVS Caremark, the second-largest US
pharmacy chain, announced last week it
will stop selling tobacco products at its
more than 7600 drugstores. e company
said it made the decision in a bid to focus
more on providing health care, but medical
and public health leaders predicted
pressure will increase on companies like
Walgreen Co. and Wal-Mart Stores Inc. to
"I do think, in another few years, that
pharmacies selling cigarettes will look
as anachronistic" as old cigarette ads
featuring physician endorsements look
today, said CDC Director Dr. Tom
ese developments have made many
in public health dream bigger. It's
caused Myers' organisation and others
to recently tout the goal of bringing the
adult smoking rate down to 10% by 2024,
from the current 18%. at would mean
dropping it at twice the speed it declined
over the last 10 years.
e bigger goal is to reduce US
smoking-related deaths to fewer than
10,000, from the current level of 480,000.
But even if smoking rates dropped to zero
immediately, it would take decades to
see that bene t, since smoking-triggered
cancers can take decades to develop.
But while some experts and advocates are
swinging for the fences, others are more
pessimistic. ey say the key to reaching
such goals is not simply more taxes and
more local smoking bans, but action by
the US Food and Drug Administration to
A 2009 US law gave the FDA the
authority to regulate tobacco products.
e law barred the FDA from outright
blocking the sale of cigarettes, but the
agency was free to take such pivotal
steps as prohibiting the use of appealing
menthol avouring in cigarettes and
requiring cigarette makers to ratchet down
the amount of addictive nicotine in each
But nearly ve years after gaining power
over cigarettes, FDA has yet to even
propose such regulations. Agency o cials
say they are working on it.
A spokesman for Altria Group Inc., the
maker of Marlboro, said the company
supports FDA exercising its regulatory
authority over tobacco products. But as
a whole, the industry has tended to ght
regulation. Some of America's largest
tobacco companies though not Altria sued
to stop FDA-proposed graphic warning
labels on cigarette packs. A federal court
blocked the ads.
" e industry makes money as long as
they can delay regulation," said Kenneth
Warner, a University of Michigan public
health professor who is a leading authority
on smoking and health.
Warner and Michigan colleague David
Mendez estimate that, barring any major
new tobacco control victories, the adult
smoking rate will drop from its current
18% only to about 12% by 2050. If health
o cials do make huge strides, the rate
could drop as low as 6%, they think.
But Lushniak said zero. Will that ever
Some experts doubt it. As long as
cigarettes and other combustible tobacco
products are legal, it's likely some people
will smoke them.
"It's hard to do a ban on cigarettes
because you're taking something away
from people they have and are using.
Once you have something, you hold tight,"
said Richard Daynard, a Northeastern
University law professor who focuses on
Better, he said, to bar people from having
a product in the rst place. He is intrigued
by legal e orts in Singapore and a handful
of other countries to ban sales of tobacco
to anyone born after a certain year 2000,
say. at would be constitutional, he said.
e question is: Would American culture
Probably not, said Ruth Malone, editor-
in-chief of the scienti c journal Tobacco
"In our culture, we tend to think we have
a right to things even if they're terrible for
us," she said.
A growing number of experts believe the
most promising option is to get people to
switch voluntarily to something else, like
Electronic cigarettes are battery-powered
devices that provide users with aerosol
pu s that typically contain nicotine, and
sometimes avourings like fruit, mint or
chocolate. ey've often been described
as a less dangerous alternative to regular
But there are few studies exploring
exactly what chemicals are in them, and in
what concentrations, and whether those
levels are harmful.
ey're controversial: Some experts
believe that at a time when cigarette
smoking has nally become passe in
popular culture, e-cigarettes may
re-glamourise pu ng away in public
places. Cigarette sales could surge.
"It could go in either direction," said
John Se rin, the American Cancer
Society's chief executive o cer.
But if the FDA can ratchet down
nicotine in conventional cigarettes to
levels below what is in e-cigarettes,
perhaps everyone who clings to smoking
will switch to the higher-nicotine new
products. at could achieve the end
of smoking, at least of combustible,
carcinogen- lled cigarettes or so the
In the past, "the country really wasn't
ready" to walk away from cigarettes,"
Daynard said. "I think the country's ready
now." --- AP
You know the 100 coolest Americans
must be a pretty hip bunch if Janis
Joplin, Chet Baker, Dean Martin and
George Clooney fail to make the cut.
Elvis Presley, James Dean, Bruce
Springsteen and Madonna do make the
choice of 100 actors, artists, musicians
and writers whose creativity and style
have shaped the concept of cool. ere is
even a welcome place for country singer
Willie Nelson in the exhibition at the
National Portrait Gallery in Washington.
e exhibition, which took ve years to
bring to fruition, has been put together
by Joel Dinerstein, professor of American
civilisation at Tulane University in New
Orleans, and Frank Goodyear III, co-
director of Bowdoin College Museum
To make their selection, the
curators came up with four de ning
characteristics of cool, of which the
people chosen had to exhibit at least
” Originality of artistic vision and
especially of a signature style.
” Cultural rebellion, or transgression
in a given historical moment.
” Iconicity, or a certain level of high-
pro le recognition.
” Recognised cultural legacy (lasting
more than a decade).
Another deciding factor was that
there had to be a good picture of the
person and among the photographers
featured in the show are Diane Arbus,
Annie Leibovitz, Robert Mapplethorpe,
Edward Steichen and Herman Leonard.
Dinerstein, who is also an adviser
on HBO show Boardwalk Empire, is
a jazz expert, and musicians are well
represented in the list, starting from Bix
Beiderbecke and Bessie Smith in " e
Roots of Cool" section to legends such as
Dinerstein said: "It was in the 1940s
and 1950s that cool was truly born,
with jazz legends like Miles Davis,
Duke Ellington, Dizzy Gillespie, Billie
Holiday, elonious Monk, Charlie
Parker and Lester Young coming to the
Dinerstein credits jazz saxophonist
Young with coining the use of the term
"Cool is America's greatest cultural
export," said Australian Kim Sajet, who
took over last year as director of the
National Portrait Gallery, which is part
of the Smithsonian network of museums.
e list opens with 19th-century poet
Walt Whitman, author of Leaves of
Grass, who is described as "the guiding
light of American bohemia", and
includes modern culture gures such as
Jay-Z and Quentin Tarantino.
Dinerstein said: " ere are people on
this list who I wish were not, but our
culture has elevated them to cool. My
example is Quentin Tarantino. I don't
like his lms and I don't like him. But
there's no question of his national and
global in uence both on art and lm and
everyone under 40."
Just under a quarter of the 100 are
women --- including Madonna, Mae
West and Bonnie Raitt --- and the list
includes, bizarrely, some non-Americans
(such as Canadian-born Neil Young and
Belgian-born Audrey Hepburn).
People will obviously disagree with the
choices --- Sidney Poitier, Slim Gaillard,
Louis Armstrong, Groucho Marx could
all have been in the 100 --- and the
curators have tried to mollify critics by
doing an "Alt 100" list of also-rans that
includes Sam Cooke, Joplin and Stan
Getz. e Roots of Cool
Zora Neale Hurston
Georgia O'Kee e
Willie " e Lion" Smith
e Birth of Cool
William S Burroughs
Cool and the Counterculture
Hunter S ompson
e Legacy of Cool
Benicio del Toro
100 coolest in US history
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