Home' Greymouth Star : April 14th 2014 Contents Greymouth Star
4 - Monday, April 14, 2014
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uLetters to the editor
1828 - e rst edition of Noah Webster's
American Dictionary of the English Language
1865 - US President Abraham
Lincoln is shot by actor John Wilkes
Booth, and dies the following
1912 - British liner Titanic
collides with an iceberg in the
North Atlantic and begins sinking.
1956 - Ampex Corp demonstrates
its rst commercial videotape recorder.
1981 - Columbia, America's rst operational
space shuttle, lands at Edwards Air Force
Baseafter its rst test ight.
1988 - Soviet Union signs accord to end its
intervention in Afghanistan and to allow Red
Army to start troop withdrawal.
2009 - Pirates hijack four ships and seize
more than 60 hostages o the coast of Somalia
just days after the US Navy liberated the
abducted American Captain Richard Phillips
and killed three of the brigands holding him.
uWest Coast yesteryear
uToday in history
John Gielgud, English actor (1904-2000);
Rod Steiger, US actor (1925-2002); Loretta
Lynn, US country singer (1932-); Julie
Christie, British actress (1941-);
Brad Garrett, US actor (1960-);
Robert Carlyle, British actor
(1961-); Julia Zemiro, Australian
tv personality (1967-); Anthony
Michael Hall, US actor (1968-);
Adrien Brody, US actor (1973-);
Sarah Michelle Gellar, US actress
(1977-); Abigail Breslin, US actress (1996-).
"If the end brings me out all right, what is
said against me won't amount to anything.
If the end brings me out wrong, 10 angels
swearing I was right would make no
di erence." --- Abraham Lincoln (1809-65).
"I pray that out of His glorious riches He
may strengthen you with power through His
Spirit in your inner being."
--- (Ephesians 3:16).
Virtually the nal
chapter in the history
of the old Wallsend
State mine, closed
in February, 1960, will be written soon. e
Mines Department is now calling tenders
for the removal of the remains of the several
buildings which occupied the site near the
bank of the Grey River.
e major parts of the structure were
removed some time ago and the concrete
foundations are to go now. " ese will be
required to be broken down to ground level
and removed," said the department's senior
engineer, Mr H Hutchinson. He added that
the contract also involves the clearing of the
land to a satisfactory state.
"It is an eyesore at the moment and we want
it cleaned up."
West Coasters recorded a higher percentage
vote for National Continuance than any other
electorate in New Zealand in the licensing poll
which was conducted in conjunction with last
year's general election. Final results of the poll
show that the West Coast was the only area
in New Zealand where three-quarters or more
of the electors voted in favour of National
Fewer than one in seven Westland voters
were in favour of prohibition --- 1859, or
Five new members, Messrs Harold
Sutherland, Bernie McSweeney, Eric Dey,
Frank Bland and Murray Iggo were inducted
at a ceremony held by the Greymouth Jaycee
chapter during its monthly business meeting
ey were introduced to the president,
Mr George Truman, by Mr Roy Arnott. In
welcoming the members, Mr Truman outlined
some of the objects of the movement.
uToday s birthdays
uFood for thought
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Sports Editor Tui Bromley
Chief Reporter Laura Mills
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03 755 8422
AUtah county, angry over
the destruction of federal
rangeland that ranchers
use to graze cattle, has
started a bid to round up
federally protected wild
horses it blames for the problem in the
latest dust-up over land management in
the United States west.
Close to 2000 wild horses are roaming
southern Utah's Iron County, well
over the 300 the US Bureau of Land
Management (BLM) has dubbed as
appropriate for the rural area's nine
designated herd management zones,
County Commissioner David Miller
said. A horse preservation group disputed
Miller's contention, saying the county
had between 400 and 500 horses.
County o cials complain the
burgeoning herd is destroying vegetation
crucial to ranchers who pay to graze their
cattle on the land, and who have already
been asked to reduce their herds to cope
with an anticipated drought.
Wild horse preservation groups say any
attempt to remove the horses would be a
Recently, county workers accompanied
byaBLMsta ersetupthe rstina
series of metal corrals designed to trap
and hold the horses on private land
abutting the federal range until they can
be moved to BLM facilities for adoption.
" ere's been no management of the
animals and they keep reproducing,"
Miller said in an interview. " e
rangeland just can't sustain it."
e con ict re ects broader tension
between ranchers, who have traditionally
grazed cattle on public lands and held
sway over land-use decisions, and
environmentalists and land managers
facing competing demands on the same
e Iron County roundup comes on
the heels of an incident in neighbouring
Nevada in which authorities sent in
helicopters and wranglers on horseback
to con scate the cattle herd of a rancher
they say is illegally grazing livestock on
In Utah, county commissioners
warned federal land managers in a letter
last month that the county would act
independently to remove the horses if no
mitigation e orts were launched.
"We charge you to ful ll your
responsibility," commissioners wrote.
"Inaction and no-management practices
pose an imminent threat to ranchers."
e operation was expected to last
weeks or months.
" e BLM is actively working with
Iron County to address the horse issue,"
Utah-based BLM spokeswoman Megan
Crandall said, declining to comment
Attorneys for wild horse preser vation
groups sent a letter this week to Iron
County commissioners and the BLM
saying the BLM, under federal law,
cannot round up horses on public lands
without proper analysis and disclosure.
" e BLM must stop caving to the
private nancial interests of livestock
owners whenever they complain about
the protected wild horses using limited
resources that are available on such
lands," wrote Katherine Meyer of Meyer,
Glitzenstein and Crystal, a Washington,
DC-based public interest law rm
representing the advocates.
e BLM puts the free-roaming
wild horse and burro population across
western states at more than 40,600,
which it says on its website exceeds by
nearly 14,000 the number of animals it
believes "can exist in balance with other
public rangeland resources and uses."
But Deniz Bolbol, a spokeswoman for
the California-based American Wild
Horse Preservation Campaign, cited
2013 BLM statistics to say there were an
estimated 400-500 horses in Iron County,
although those federal statistics did not
break the numbers down precisely by
Wild horse advocates point out that the
tens of thousands of wild horses on BLM
property pales in comparison with the
millions of private livestock grazing on
public lands managed by the agency.
" e American public owns this land,
it's not just a few ranchers in Iron
County, and so the lands need to be
managed for all Americans," Bolbol said.
Wild horses have not been culled due
to budget constraints, according to Utah
BLM o cials, who say their herds grow
by roughly 20 percent per year.
Pressure on rangeland from the horses
may worsen this summer due to a
drought that could dry up the already
sparse available food supply, according to
"We're going to see those horses
starving to death out on the range," he
said. " e humane thing is to get this
Adding to frustration is BLM pressure
on ranchers to cut their cattle herds by as
much as 50% to cope with the drought,
A tour of Iron County rangeland, not
far from the Nevada border, illustrates the
unchecked herds' impact on the land, said
Jeremy Hunt, a fourth generation Utah
rancher whose cattle graze in the summer
in a management area split through its
middle by a barbed wire fence.
On the cattle side of the fence, the
sagebrush and grass landscape is thick
and green. e other, where a group
of horses was seenrecently, is scattered
with barren patches of dirt and sparse
" is land is being literally destroyed
because they are not following the laws
that they set up to govern themselves,"
said Hunt, who also works as a farmhand
to make ends meet for his family of six.
"I want the land to be healthy and I
want be a good steward of the land," he
added. "But you have to manage both
sides of the fence." --- Reuters
Utah horse battle
A pair of wild horses graze in the Nephi Wash area outside Enterprise, Utah.
Almost a quarter of Europe's bumblebees
are at risk of extinction due to loss of
habitats and climate change, threatening
pollination of crops worth billions of
dollars, a study shows.
Sixteen of 68 bumblebee species in
Europe are at risk, the Red List of the
International Union for Conservation
of Nature (IUCN) said. It is preparing a
global study of the bees, whose honeybee
cousins are in steep decline because of
"Of the ve most important insect
pollinators of European crops, three are
bumblebee species," said the IUCN,
which groups governments, scientists and
"Together with other pollinators,
bumblebees contribute more than 22
billion euros ($30.35 billion) to European
agriculture a year," it said in a statement.
Of Europe's bumblebee species,
populations of almost half are falling and
just 13% are increasing, it said.
Often with yellow and black stripes and
bigger than honeybees, bumblebees live
in small nests of up to 200 and do not
make honeycombs. Some bumblebees are
commercially bred to pollinate tomatoes,
peppers and aubergines in greenhouses.
"Climate change, the intensi cation of
agriculture and changes in agricultural
land are the main threats" to bumblebees,
said the report, the rst Red List
assessment of threats to bumblebees.
e European Union's top environment
o cial said the 28-nation bloc was taking
action to improve the situation.
" e EU recently banned or restricted
the use of certain pesticides that are
dangerous to bees and is funding
research into status of pollinators," said
EU Environment Commissioner Janez
Potonik in a statement.
"However, e orts clearly need to be
scaled up," he added. e IUCN study was
funded by the European Commission.
e study did not mention the possibility
that honeybee diseases were spreading to
A study in the journal Nature in
February said that deformed wing virus,
for instance, was found in both honeybees
and bumblebees in Britain. e virus was
more prevalent in honeybees, suggesting it
was spreading from them to bumblebees.
"In general, we don't know a lot about
bumblebee disease," Stuart Roberts, a
member of the IUCN's global bumblebee
assessment team, told Reuters.
"Some of these threatened bumblebees
are isolated, living in the Arctic or the
Alps," he said. "In those places the chance
of picking up a disease from a honeybee is
e Arctic species Bombus hyperboreus,
living in the Scandinavian tundra and
Russia, is vulnerable because global
warming is shrinking its habitat, the study
Populations of the critically endangered
Bombus cullumanus, now found only in
France, have fallen by more than 80% in
the past decade, apparently because of a
reduction in the amount of meadows with
clover, its favourite forage, the study added.
Only queen bumblebees survive the
Honeybees, living in longer-lasting
colonies of thousands of bees, make
honeycombs largely to ensure that the
insects have food to sur vive months
with no nectar-making owers.
Plight of the bumblebees
Sleep plays a vital role in the early
learning and development of babies and
young children, a study has found.
Infants who nap are better able to
apply lessons learned to new skills, while
sleeping appears to help pre-school
toddlers retain learned knowledge.
United States researchers looked at
the ability of young children to
recognise something similar but not
identical to what they have learned and
apply it to a new situation.
Known as 'generalisation', language
examples include recognising the letter 'A'
in di erent fonts, understanding a word
regardless of who speaks it, or spotting a
grammatical pattern in a sentence never
"Sleep is essential for extending
learning to new examples," study leader
Dr Rebecca Gomez, from the University
of Arizona, said.
"Naps soon after learning appear to be
particularly important for generalisation
of knowledge in infants and pre-
One experiment involved playing an
arti cial 'training language' to year-old
infants over loudspeakers. e babies
were then tested to see if they recognised
new vocabulary straight after either
taking a nap or staying awake.
ose who napped were better able
to absorb the language rules and apply
them to recognising entirely new
sentences in the language.
eir performance was assessed by
timing how long they spent with their
heads turned to listen to correctly versus
incorrectly structured sentences.
Preschoolers did not form
generalisations during sleep in the same
way. However, naps helped them retain
generalisations formed earlier, after an
interval of wakefulness.
e research was presented at the
annual meeting of the Cognitive
Neuroscience Society in Boston, US.
Dr Susanne Diekelmann, from the
University of Tubingen in Germany,
who chaired a symposium on sleep
at the conference, said: "Sleep is a
highly selective state that preferentially
strengthens memories that are relevant
for our future behaviour".
"Sleep can also abstract general rules
from single experiences, which helps
us to deal more e ciently with similar
situations in the future." --- PA
Sleep vital to your child's development
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