Home' Greymouth Star : June 23rd 2014 Contents Greymouth Star
4 - Monday, June 23, 2014
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uLetters to the editor
1848 - Belgian Adolphe Sax is awarded a
patent for the saxophone.
1872 - First practical typewriter is patented by
Christopher Sholes in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
1980 - Sanjay Gandhi, eldest son of Indian
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, is killed while
flying his plane.
1992 - Mafia godfather John Gotti is
sentenced to life in prison, triggering
a near riot as his supporters try
to storm the Brooklyn Federal
1993 - L orena Bobbitt of Prince
William County, Virginia, cuts off
her husband John’s penis. She is later
acquitted of malicious wounding
by reason of insanity, he is acquitted of marital
sexual assault and begins a career as a porn star.
1995 - Death of Jonas Salk, who developed
the first vaccine against polio.
1998 - Death of Irish-born actress Maureen
O’Sullivan aged 87.
2005 - Former Ku Klux Klansman Edgar
Ray Killen is sentenced to 60 years in prison
for orchestrating the 1964 killings of three civil
2006 - Death, of television producer Aaron
Spelling, aged 83.
uWest Coast yesteryear
uToday in history
Josephine, French empress and wife of
Napoleon Bonaparte (1763-1814); Edward,
Duke of Windsor (1894-1972);
June Carter Cash, US country singer
(1929-2003); Adam Faith, British
singer-actor (1940-2003); Frances
McDormand, US actress (1957-);
Zinedine Zidane, French footballer
(1972-); Selma Blair, American
actress (1972-); Joel Edgerton,
Australian actor (1974-); KT Tunstall, Scottish
singer-songwriter and musician (1975-); Jason
Mraz, American singer (1977-).
“Even the merest gesture is holy if it is filled
with faith.” — Franz Kafka, author and poet
“The Lord will keep you from all harm — He
will watch over your life; the Lord will watch
over your coming and going both now and
forevermore.” — (Psalm 121:7-8).
Stillwater is to
have running water.
Contractor C J Barrett
has struck water at
40 feet for the Brunner Borough Council
directly behind the site of P-S Timbers Ltd. If
it is ‘good’ water, Stillwater and the proposed
factory site should be reticulated in six months.
Brunner council town clerk Miss J F Warren
is thrilled with the news. It means that the
council’s £10,000 reticulation scheme can now
go ahead. It means that the council’s promise
of water to the new industry is realised.
Indications today are that the water passes
through sufficient gravel to be ‘clean’. The
supply does not seem to be in doubt.
The appointment of Mr G C Hayter as
district auditor for the West Coast has been
confirmed by the Controller and Auditor-
General, Mr A D Burns. Mr Hayter has
been a local resident for four years, the first
two of those with the Health Department in
Greymouth and the last two with the Audit
An English chartered accountant by
profession, Mr Hayter arrived in New Zealand
to work for the health sector in 1957 after
being based in the Gilbert Islands.
A member of the United 8th grade A team
in Greymouth is Gavin Cook, 10 years six
months and under 5st 7lb. Playing at second
five-eighth, he has scored 58 points from
12 tries, 11 conversions this season. A very
determined runner with the ball he is also a
player of some ability so far as stepping out of
The team has scored 189 points from seven
games and has had only three points chalked
uFood for thought
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e have experienced
doom and gloom
baffling statics to
support dire predictions for the future
of the whitebait fishery. Too often the
finger of blame is pointed at West Coast
whitebaiters. Quite frankly, I have had a
We are well aware of the threats facing
whitebait and other fish species. The
whitebaiters’ Association takes these threats
seriously, and has a longstanding policy
of working with others to address the
issues. All is not doom and gloom. Others
are working positively to improve our
waterways and breeding sites. There is a lot
to be done, but there are some remarkable
improvements. The biggest challenge is to
gain the resources, and money needed to
expand these programmes. Dr Joy ’s efforts
would better focused in that direction.
The recent introduction of the
Government ’s fresh water management
scheme will help control future
degeneration of rivers and streams.
Department of Conser vation’s excellent
restoration programmes have shown
positive results. A proactive approach
by the regional council and Westland
Milk Products, working with farmers has
shown results. There are also a surprising
number of scientific studies now focused
on whitebait and habitat. But there are
still too many unknowns. Funding and
co-ordination are the big issues.
Dr Joy ’s attack on commercial
whitebaiters demonstrates a lack of
understanding of whitebaiting and
whitebaiters. The defining of what
constitutes commercial or recreational
whitebaiting would be ‘mission
impossible’. If whitebaiters were reliant on
their catch, over the two and a half month
season, to supply their annual income, they
would be poor indeed.
Whitebaiters are there for the lifestyle,
and they outlay a lot of money for that
lifestyle. If profits from their catch help
defray that outlay, then they have had a
good season. More often than not, they
have not. Scarcity of supply drives up
prices. If those fishing legitimately are
prevented from doing so, prices will go
through the roof, and this will encourage a
blackmarket, and the type of people we do
not want on our rivers.
As to changing regulations, I would
invite Dr Joy to note there are two sets of
regulations governing whitebaiting in New
Zealand. The New Zealand Whitebait
Fishing Regulations, and the Whitebait
Fishing West Coast Regulations. The
differences are noteworthy.
For example: In the New Zealand
Regulations there are 19 provisions — no
schedules, no back pegs, no restriction
on fishing non-tidal water. Closed
season is from December 1 and August
14. No specified closed areas. Clause 9,
on restrictions on the use of screens, is
revoked. Allowable length of fishing gear
In the West Coast Regulations there are
22 provisions and three schedules attached.
Closed season is between November 15
and August 31. There are 22 closed areas
listed. Clause 8 lists seven restrictions on
the use of screens. The length of screen
is not to exceed 3m. Fishing above tidal
water is prohibited. Fishing above the back
peg is prohibited. There are 47 rivers with
back pegs. There are 21 rivers where special
conditions are applied.
These differences have been in force
since the early 1980s.
It is clear that West Coast whitebaiters
have been carrying a lot more than their
fair share of the conser vation burden for a
very long time.
As another example, the Mokau River,
a small North Island river, hosts 350
whitebait stands over 35km of its length.
There are 640 registered stands on the
entire West Coast, whereas this one small
river has more than half that number.
If West Coast rules were applied, there
would be no fishing above the back peg
or tidal water, and there would be 40m
It is well established that whitebait
breeding habits are not river specific,
and conser vation of the species is a New
Zealand-wide issue. Yet despite this, the
West Coast Whitebaiters’ Association
have been actively lobbying successive
ministers of conser vation for a major
review of whitebait regulations with a
view to make further conser vation gains.
But we want a single set of regulations
for the whole nation, and we want to
use the West Coast Regulations as the
The conser vation gains are obvious,
and significant. O ur efforts have been
declined, not because of any fear of
political suicide, as Dr Joy suggests, but
simply because it is not a priority to
I would invite Dr Joy to forget
his negative attacks on West Coast
whitebaiters, and to join us in our efforts
to persuade the minister to make positive
The West Coast Whitebaiters Association disputes comments by Dr Mike Joy in the
Greymouth Star this month, predicting the extinction of whitebait over the next 50 years.
Whitebaiters’ Association president DES McENANEY, who has fished the Taramakau
River for years, says scientists should stop sheeting the blame to West Coast fishermen and
impose more consistent fishing regulations throughout the country.
Saving the whitebait fisher
The key figure in one of the most
notorious murders in New Zealand colonial
history has been pardoned.
The rare statutory pardon for Kereopa
Te Rau, included in a Treaty of Waitangi
settlement with a Rotorua iwi, has passed
into law without fanfare.
A result of careful research and a tribe’s
unshakeable belief, the pardon effectively
means Kereopa is no longer guilty of
the murder in March 1865 of German-
born Carl Sylvius Volkner, an Anglican
missionary who was hanged from a willow
tree and then beheaded beside a wooden
church near Opotiki.
Kereopa was among several Maori
convicted of Volkner’s murder, a crime
which one historian maintains set back race
relations by 100 years.
After a brief trial, Kereopa was hanged at
Napier jail in January 1872. His iwi, Ngati
Rangiwewehi, a Te Arawa sub-tribe, say
the hearing was a miscarriage of justice and
more in the nature of a show trial, with the
accused facing a predetermined outcome.
Volkner’s brutal slaying — reprised in
the 1983 film Utu — made news around
a shocked world, especially the claim that
Kereopa had removed Volkner’s eyes with
his fingers and eaten them, earning him the
name Kaiwhatu: the eye-eater.
Accounts at the time reported that the
cleric’s head was placed on the church
pulpit while frenzied warriors who
witnessed the slaughter danced and yelled.
The next day, Volkner’s severed head was
taken for smoking before it was carried to
His body, which had been tossed down
a long-drop, was eventually laid in a grave
dug by local Maori.
The Crown’s response was blunt. Colonial
troops and Maori allies were sent to
Opotiki, seizing thousands of hectares of
land and arresting and killing resistors.
It took soldiers five years to catch up
with the elusive Kereopa, who had a £1000
bounty on his head. Eventually he was
taken captive in the Ureweras, where he
had been protected by Tuhoe people.
At the trial in Napier, a Supreme Court
jury took barely 15 minutes to find Kereopa
Contemporary research presented to
the tribunal cast doubt on his guilt, and
suggested his trial was anything but fair.
Witnesses who appeared for the Crown
were granted immunity from prosecution
in return for helping secure a conviction,
though it is not clear the court was aware of
Kereopa, for his part, was unable to get
anyone to testify in his defence because
the Crown refused to help them travel to
Napier for the trial.
Te Rangikaheke Bidois, lead negotiator
for Ngati Rangiwewehi, said the pardon
was a bittersweet outcome. For descendants
of Kereopa, the fact his name had been
cleared was immensely important, she said.
But the whanau might want the pardon to
go further and remove the stigma that had
burdened his family for generations. Mrs
Bidois said there was a history of suicide
among male descendants of the Arawa
chief. “It’s hard to undo the shame which
his whanau has felt,” she said.
Kereopa is the second important figure
to be pardoned over Volkner’s killing.
Mokomoko, a Whakatohea chief, was one
of several Maori tried and executed soon
after the murder. He was pardoned in 1992
by Governor-General Dame Catherine
Tizard, and legislation restoring his
character, mana and reputation was passed
Mrs Bidois said Kereopa’s whanau might
want the same acknowledgement, but it
was for them to decide. Besides the pardon,
the iwi received $6 million in reparations,
an apology for Treaty breaches, transfer of
a forest and the return of several culturally
valuable springs around Lake Rotorua. Two
decades of work had gone into the claim,
Mrs Bidois said, and while they had hoped
for more, the iwi wanted to build on their
For author and film-maker Peter Wells,
the Crown’s pardon came too late to be
included in his new book about Volkner
and Kereopa, Journey to a Hanging.
His account — a blend of history,
imagination and biography — charts the
collision course of the immigrant minister
with the influential Kereopa, a disciple of
the Pai Mairie (Good and Peaceful) faith,
an indigenous religion with Old Testament
roots, and the subsequent hanging of
Volkner’s accused killer.
Wells recounts that the tragedy had an
inevitability once Volkner, against all advice,
returned to Opotiki from Auckland, where
he had been visiting his wife Emma. The
churchman was viewed with deep suspicion
because he had come to be seen as a
“He was heading to his doom,” said Wells,
and the Whakatohea people, who built
Volkner’s church, could not alter the fatal
Kereopa, for his part, arrived in the Bay
of Plenty with a heavy heart and possibly
revenge on his mind. The year before,
his wife and two daughters died near Te
Awamutu after British troops burned down
a whare where missionaries told the family
they would be safe. The next day, in another
Waikato seige, Kereopa’s sister was killed.
Volkner had sent Governor George Grey
a plan of the pa where the family burned to
Says Wells: “ There was going to be a
victim.” The only doubt was who would
be chosen — Volkner or Thomas Grace,
a Taupo missionary who fled his parish
because of war.
Wells’ book includes a portrait of the
prisoner Kereopa taken in Napier prison by
the town’s photographer, Samuel Carnell.
Just days from the gallows, Kereopa stares
mournfully from the image, a cloak pulled
up beneath his chin and his moko traced
with a marker and added after the shot was
taken. The garment was placed to conceal a
serious neck wound which the incarcerated
chief had inflicted with a concealed razor in
a vain attempt to defeat Pakeha justice.
On his last night on Earth, after the
influential colonist William Colenso
had tried but failed to get clemency for
Kereopa, Catholic nun Mother Mary
Aubert kept the prisoner company “in a
fight for his soul”.
Wells believes both Volkner and Kereopa
faced their fate with courage.
— New Zealand Herald
Pardoned at last: Chief cleared of 1865 murder
Kereopa Te Rau
Physicists say they have learned more
about the identity of the Higgs Boson, the
elusive particle whose ground-breaking
discovery was announced nearly two years
Work at the Large Hadron Collider
(LHC) — the particle smasher on
the French-Swiss border where the
breakthrough was made — has answered
long-standing questions about how the
Higgs behaves, they said on yesterday.
The Higgs was theorised in the 1960s as
being the sub-atomic particle that gives
other particles mass. Without it, matter
would not exist.
Decades of work followed to explore
the idea until on July 4, 2012, rival
teams at the LHC announced they had
independently found a particle consistent
with the Higgs.
But further work was needed to flesh
out this discovery and to see how it fits
with the Standard Model, the conceptual
framework for explaining visible matter in
In a study published in the journal Nature
Physics, one of the LHC teams said the
boson behaves as predicted, and is not an
“ imposter that looks like it”.
Analysis of the mountain of data from
collisions at the LHC shows the boson
decays neatly to a group of sub-particles
called fermions, in line with Standard
Model theory, the paper said.
“This is an enormous breakthrough,”
Markus Klute of the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology who led the
research at the LHC’s Compact Muon
“Now we know that particles like
electrons get their mass by coupling to the
Higgs field, which is really exciting.”
Finding the Higgs was only possible
through the building of the LHC, the
world’s biggest laboratory, made up of a
27km ring-shaped tunnel.
An army of physicists from around the
world sifted through the rubble left from
billions of proton smashups, hunting for a
telltale signature from a fleeting particle.
The initial discovery put the Higgs’ mass
at between 125 to 126 gigaelectronvolts,
a standard unit of measurement at sub-
Later analysis of the data from these
experiments also found the boson has
no spin, and rapidly decays into pairs of
photons (particles of light) and so-called W
or Z bosons.
“ We have now established the main
characteristics of this new particle,” Klute
said in a press release issued by MIT.
Experiments at the LHC are currently
on hold while the collider goes through
an upgrade, although scientists are still
trawling through reams of data generated
from smashups before the shutdown.
Operations are due to resume in 2015,
with a three-year programme that will
see scientists use more powerful collisions
to explore theorised phenomena such as
“super-symmetry” which may explain dark
matter, the substance that makes up most of
the Universe. — AFP
Experiments give shape to Higgs Boson
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